e of the blue-colored
compounds has not yet been investigated.
Apparently, they are quite unstable and involve a
type of chemical bond known as chinones. Many
pigments are known to have this basic structure.
Figure 40 - Psilocybe cubensis fruiting bodies whose
growth was accelerated with plant hormones.
Figure 41 - Mycelial culture of Psilocybe cubensis on
malt extract (3 % solution).
The Agaricales As Alkaloid Producers
Even though the blue discoloration does
not occur in ali mushroom species that produce
psilocybin and psilocin, we can say that,
conversely, all species of the order Agaricales
(gilled mushrooms) displaying this reaction are
capable of producing alkaloids. Historically,
this problem associated with the bluing reaction
did not particularly impress early mycologists,
because there were a number of boletes which
turned blue in reaction to pressure and were
thought to be among the most valued culinary
mushrooms. Indeed, the mushrooms' color
reaction is based on ingredients that are
physiologically inactive. The boletes also do
not display the kinds of spontaneous
discolorations with age that are frequently
noted in the psychotropic species.
As results of my own analyses have
shown, the alkaloid concentrations in Psilocybe
semilanceata and Panaeolus subbalteatus - whose
fruiting bodies showed a slight degree of
discoloration at most - are within the same
orders of magnitude as those found in
mushrooms that do not turn blue. Evidently, the
pigments involved have a high degree of
intensity; the tiny amounts that were produced
did not measurably contribute to the destruction
of the active ingredients. On the other hand, my
own experiments revealed that levels of
psilocin and psilocybin in very old and strongly
discolored fruiting bodies and mycelia of
Psilocybe cubensis were considerably lower in
comparison to younger specimens. In 1948,
Singer was the first to describe the
intensification of the bluing reaction, including
a change in color towards violet, in samples of
Psilocybe cubensis which had been moistened
with an aqueous solution of the photographic
reagent metol (p-methylaminophenol). Ten
years later he reported further examinations of
some psychotropic Psilocybe species whose
stems usually turned purple through contact
with this reagent. Since 1970, various
"field guides" intended to aid in the
identification of North American Psilocybes
have also described this reaction as specific to
the Psilocybe species. For practical purposes,
however, this guideline is all but useless. The
metol merely reacts with the laccase enzyme
(several structural types) contained in the
mushrooms and it is not a reagent able to
the presence of psilocybin and its derivatives.
Even the brown and white varieties of the
commercial champignon mushroom change colors
when exposed to a metol solution, just like many
other mushrooms do as well.
The Limitations of Reagents
The discove We know that the rootlets of
many trees are often locked in symbiotic embrace with the subterranean mycelium
of the mushroom, and for this intimacy the mycologists have invented
their special word - mycorrhiza, from the Greek words for fungus and root.
The painstaking observations of mycologists have proved that between the
birch tree and the boletus scaber there is such a relationship, and similarly
between the aspen and the European boletus rufus.
youtuerotico Psilocybecubensisgrowinginlosangeles Therefore I giue my simple aduice vnto those that loue such a strange
and newefangled meates, to beware of licking honie among thornes, least the sweetenes
of the one do not countervaile the sharpnes and pricking of the other.
pp. 1384-6 of first edition
A few years after Gerarde, in 1609, Sir Michael Scott said his say about
mushrooms in The Philosophers banquet, and here and now we give to his words
. . .
how to lucid genic mushrooms
More than half of Australia's beef cattle can be found in the coastal areas of Queensland and New South Wales; and the 20 to 30 inch (500-750mm) rainfall belt of Queensland, New South Wales and Northern Victoria, generally provide adequate climatic environments for the growth of psilocybian mushrooms, especially after heavy rains. It has been suggested that "Psilocybe cubensis was introduced into Australia accidentally by early settlers along with their livestock." This same spore dispersal mechanism also probably applies to Copelandia cyanescens, Panaeolus subbalteatus and several additional species known to occur in or around the dung of other ruminants. This includes Psilocybe semilanceata and the non-hallucinogenic "haymaker's" mushroom Panaeolina foenisecii. While cattle are raised in all Australian states, as well as in the central lowlands, recreational users have been known to export these psychoptic species to various areas in Australia from areas where they were collected. In the case of New Zealand, hereafter referred to as NZ, cattle are the primary source for Copelandia cyanescens, but the "liberty cap" mushroom Psilocybe semilanceata only grows in the manured soil of four-legged ruminants and not directly from manure (Jansen, Pers. Comm., 1988). The identification section of this guide documents reported locations for more than 1 dozen species of psilocybian mushrooms in Australia and NZ which most likely have been used at one time or another for recreational purposes. Infosalviajplocnl