rovided by Saupe in 1981, who examined
extracts of Pluteus salicinus (Pers.:Fr.) Kumm. from
Illinois. Surprisingly, psilocin turned out to be the
alkaloid with the highest levels of concentration in
the samples tested. This mushroom species had
previously been described in Europe about 200
years ago. Since then, however, it has rarely been
mentioned in the literature, and only briefly, if at all
(see Figure 37, p. 59).
Some taxonomic methods of classification
used earlier can still cause confusion today. For
example, Ricken (1915) designated the mushroom
as Pluteus petasatus.
By way of expanding the description from
1962 (see Figure 37), Pluteus salicinus is identified
by the following characteristics:
Medium-sized mushroom with a more or
less intensely bluish to bluish-green coloration.
Older mushrooms are sometimes colored olive
Caps in some cases up to 8 cm in diameter,
lighter colored around the margin, silver grey, hairy
and felt-like, even hairier and felt-like towards the
middle of the cap, often scaly.
Stems up to 10 cm in length, with
spontaneous grey-green or grey-blue discolorations
at the base, colors intensify in response to
There are also mushrooms of this species
that are white in color (see Figure 38, p. 60).
However, these albino fruiting bodies have stems
whose bases show a slight grey-green coloration
as well, as do the apex areas of their caps.
Pluteus salicinus has been described as being
anywhere from "very rare" to "not rare" in the
wet deciduous forests of Europe. The species of
the genus Pluteus are final wood-destroyers, that
is, they grow saprophytically on wood that
appears rotten and discolored, because it has
decomposed due to the presence of other
mushrooms over the course of many years.
Pluteus salicinus fruits from May to October on
stumps of willows, alder-trees, lime-trees, beechtrees,
poplars, maple-trees and possibly on the
wooden remnants of other tree species as well,
The fact that this mushroom has not been the
cause of any intoxications may be explained by
its fruiting bodies' occurrence on tree stumps as
single mushrooms or in groups of very few
mushrooms. Also, compared to other woodinhabiting
mushrooms, Pluteus salicinus is not
very attractive in appearance. The mushroom's
habitus is well illustrated by Figure 39 (p. 60).
For unknown reasons, Kreisel described
all Pluteus species as "non-poisonous" in his
1987 handbook of mushrooms, despite the fact
that psilocybin (0.35 % of dried mushrooms) had
already been discovered in samples of this
species in 1981 (North America) and 1984
(Norway). The alkaloid was also found in
mushrooms from Holland, Finland, Sweden and
France. The latter tests, however, were limited to
very few fruiting bodies in each case.
Whereas Stijve found an average of 0.25
% of psilocybin in dried mushrooms from 20
samples collected in Switzerland from 1984 to
1986, my own analyses of non-bluing (!)
mush ocholars have not found the derivation of mushroom, and therefore the field
lies open for amateur inquirers. The word has circulated in English for some five
centuries at least, in many forms, and the variant musheron is still often heard
in the United States. It is clear that the English borrowed the word from the
French language spoken at court in the Middle Ages, the French word surviving
in modern French as mousseron.
ioa.zte.com.cn Panaeoluscinctulushuntingutah lethalem.
This species is also found in the aged forests around Frankfort-on-the-Main, where it is
collected by peasant women and brought to the city for sale. Since most of the buyers
know it well, they buy it to kill flies with. And so, as I said before, since the flies like to
sit on these mushrooms people scatter them in pieces around the room and strew them
before the windows the flies, attracted and excited, suck the juice which is poisonous
for them and soon die.
do truffles grow in kentucky
magic mushroom retreat Mushroom Farming Salvia
panaeolus cinctulus cinctulus
end is here.
I know that I am a physician named
Claudius Vinzen and that the year is 1427.
I wake up in the reality of winter, 1990.
Metz, where is Metz Later on, I locate the city on a
map of France and until this day, I have been trying
to verify if this physician lived there during the
Middle Ages. I am reminded of my long years of
professional work with criminal and drug-addicted
youngsters. I sense the common elements of
these two realities (karma), the sacrifices of
Such deeply moving experiences do
not appear to be unusual (compare to reports of
experiences with Psilocybe semilanceata in
Chapter 3.1) and should always be studied in all
Only France seems to engage in
elaborate activities designed to locate collectors
of psychotropic mushrooms. Despite its grand
mycological traditions, France is a country that
has a rather absurd prohibition against the
exhibition of Psilocybe and Stropharia species
(European Stropharia species do not produce
psilocybin) at scientific conventions. As a
consequence, French mycologists have been
avoiding the use of the genus Psilocybe.
Nowadays, at mycological conventions,
Psilocybes are exhibited under the old name of
Geophila (Quelet), which appears to have gotten
around the problem of breaking the law.
According to my personal communications
with mycologists, the usage of
Psilocybe semilanceata in Italy began in about
1980/1981 and has been rising steadily since
then. At the same time, there have been no
clinically relevant cases, nor any legislative
action on the matter. Towards the late 1980s,
usage of psychoactive Psilocybe species began in
the former Czechoslovakia, for instance, around
the region of Brno. It appears that Psilocybe
bohemica is used more often in this country than
Psilocybe semilanceata, as the former species is
quite common there.
Very little is known about European usage
of mushroom species from other genera. In the
mid-1980s, Spanish youngsters near Barcelona
were observed using Panaeolus mushrooms.
The well-known booklet authored by Oss
and Oeric about the cultivation of Psilocybe
cubensis has been translated into several European
languages and published in different countries. It
is almost certain that the book is being used as a
cultivation guide in Europe, however, there are no
available data about the success rate of these
experiments. In many cases, commonly occurring
contaminants probably prevent fruiting of this
subtropical species on rye substrate.
I won't risk making predictions about the
extent of future usage of indigenous European
psychoactive mushroom species, nor am I able to
predict which species may or may not gain in
popularity. However, it is possible to speculate
that the increased geographic distribution of
species such as Inocybe aeruginascens and
Psilocybe cyanescens may lead to more
unintentional intoxications, which, in turn, may
result in creating a generally d Info Salvia Jp Loc Nl
Do Truffles Grow In Kentucky
The period of silent
invasion, that veritable signature of the lethal mushroom, was familiar to him,
and he even took pains to mention how tasty the wicked mushroom was! How
much guilty knowledge packed into a few words! Read in conjunction with
the Empress Agrippinas instructions to Locusta, we believe it clinches our
case. The poison in the dish of Caesars amanitas was the poison of the deadly
Magic Mushroom Retreat Panaeolus-campanulatus-poison