lose relative of Mexico's
psychoactive species, Psilocybe semilanceata is
a mushroom whose physical appearance
resembles Psilocybe semperviva Heim &
Cailleux and Psilocybe
Stalks generally single, sometimes clustered, from two to four inches in
height, the thickness of a goose quill, thread shaped whitish almost solid, the
tube being very small, glutinous; ring, a little below the cap, scarce
“ Cap, from one to two inches in breadth, of a brown color; in the full. grown
ones hemispherical, always convex, and more or lets glutinous; wet with
rain, it becomes browner and transparent,'so that it sometimes appears
“ Gills numerous, single, of a brownish purple color, clouded; whole ones
about twenty, horizontal, three shorter ones placed betwixt them; they throw
out a powder of a brownish purple color."
With respect to the use of it, he only says, « There is nothing acrimonious or
disagreeable in its taste, yet its appearance will not recommend it to the
lovers of mushrooms."
Figure 9 - Drawing and description of Psilocybe semilanceata by J. Sowerby (London, 1803).
1733. A. semilanceatus Fries (Observ. II. pag. 178).
Synon. : Agaricus semiglobatus Sowerby (Engl. Fungi taf. 240.
fig. 1-3). Hut etwas hautig, spitz kegelfdrmig, fast zugespitzt, 11/2 Cent.
breit, 1/2 Cent. hock, feucht klebrig, fein streifig, gelb oder grunlich,
zah, mit Anfangs umgeknicktem Rande und leicht trennbarer Oberhaut.
Stiel zah, gebogen, 11 Cent. hock, kahl, blass. Lamellen angeheftet,
aufsteigend, purpur-schwarz. Sporen ellptisch, hellbraun, 9 -16 u
lang, 4 - 9 u dick.
Ax Wegen, auf Grasphitzen, besonders wo Mist gelegen hat.
spitzkegeliger Kahlkopf (Psilocybe semilanceata). Kegel-glockenformig mit
papilenertiger spitze Hut-o,5-1 cm breit, bis 2cm hock, lehmfarben mit olivgrunem
Stich, klebrig. Lamellen breit, oliv-lehmfarben, spater purpurbraun.
Stiel schlank, glanzend. - Gedungte Wiesen, Wegrander. Stellenweise.
Figure 10 - Two descriptions of Psilocybe semilanceata from the German-language
literature. The first description (top) was written over a hundred years ago, while the
second one (bottom) dates to 1962. Significantly, the more recent entry classifies the
species as "essentially worthless". Also see Figure 11.
mexicana Heim. Like Psilocybe semilanceata, these
Mexican species thrive in meadows and pastures.
Another common trait among these species is the
rather subdued and subtle quality of their bluing
reaction. Recognition of these similarities with
Mexican species sparked the curiosity of scientists
who wanted to learn more about Europe's
Psilocybe species. A research team that included
A. Hofmann and R. Heim began to study samples
of Psilocybe semilanceata, in collaboration with C.
Furrer, a mycologist who examined fruiting bodies
collected in Switzerland and France. By 1963,
paper chromatography testing had yielded data of
historic significance. For the first time, scientists
visions and we travelled together around the word
as well the spiritual realm. She made a clearly
telepathic statement about my hometown, which I
could not fathom or
interpret at the time, nor could I do so later on.
While under the impression that the thinking
process itself was something supernatural, I was
filled with confidence when I realized without a
doubt that death itself was but a levitation of the
soul, which may or may not entail looking down
upon the "normal" world. I did, however,
anxiously reject her offer to see into my future and
tell me about what she learned.
Yet 1 knew that
she was already seeing such things.
The above account vividly illustrates the
cosmic-mystical aspects of the mushrooms'
effects. Such effects have frequently been
described following ingestion of high doses of
hallucinogens, especially in cautious and
protective environments ("setting") coupled with a
positive, internal mood ("set") primed by careful
preparation. Of course, the detailed content of such
experiences varies across individuals. Pahnke's
masterful study during Good Friday Services in
1962 has become a famous event in the history of
research into these states of consciousness.
Three years later, a remarkable range of
effects was observed in the same participant of an
experiment conducted in Prague, where mycelia
from Psilocybe bohemica were used. Due to
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analytical error, the four participants each ingested
72 mg of psilocybin, plus some psilocin, instead of
the intended dosage of 30 mg of psilocybin each:
Days before the experiment, I already
began to suspect that this experience would not
evolve as smoothly as it had three years ago, given
the amount of personal stress I had suffered over
the previous two months. However, I had faith in
the expertise provided by psychiatric guidance.
Prior to the experiment, I asked the psychiatrist
about the possible causes underlying my seeming
inability to fully experience the unfolding of visual
He brushed aside my question with a
short and terse reply : "Resistance", which only
heightened my feelings of anxious tension.
After ingestion of the hot preparation,
fifteen minutes passed until the sudden onset of its
I ceased to perceive the music and sank
into an autistic state devoid of visions which
lasted for three hours.
This state was subjectively
experienced as one of confusion with a partial
loss of consciousness as well as the loss of a
sense of time and place. This torturous period,
however, did not include any rough somatic
After I woke up, I felt like a broken
machine; only the compassion of the other
participants, which were also suffering, helped to
clear my head temporarily. My experimenter
attempted to counterbalance these effects and to
provide a firmly grounded focus of reality, but his
efforts were unsuccessful in the long run. I felt as
if I was extremely drunk, Info Believe Com Tr Loc Nl
except there was none of
MAIL BLACKSEA.NET.UA How Do I Grow Mushrooms Salvia
Most recreational users of Psilocybe cubensis (when grown in vitro) require a dosage of 1 to 2 gm of dried mushrooms to produce an altered state of consciousness; a clinical dosage for Psilocybe cubensis, on the other hand, had previously been reported as ranging from 3 to 5 gm of dried material. This dosage would be comparable to the amount of fungal material consumed for religious purposes in a Mazatec Indian healing and curing ceremony. In 1982, one research team "found that the level of psilocybin and psilocin varies over a factor of 4 among various in vitro cultures of Psilocybe cubensis, while specimens from outdoors varied tenfold." A fresh dosage of Psilocybe cubensis in Australia would be approximately from 1 to 2 large mushrooms weighing up to as much as one fresh ounce, or as many as from 25 to 50 small mushrooms equaling the same weight amount. Ethnopharmacologist Jonathan Ott (1976, 1993) noted that he has observed "the ingestion of from 0.5 gm to 5.9 gm dried weight (10 gm to 40 gm fresh)", of various species of Psilocybe. Dosage for Psilocybe subcubensis would be the same as for Psilocybe cubensis. Both of these latter two species are macroscopically alike. The usual dosage for Copelandia cyanescens required to induce psychedelic visual effects ranges from 1 to 3 large specimens (cap diameter c. 5 mm), or as many as 5 to l0 medium-sized mushrooms (cap diameter c. 2.5 mm); however, personal tolerance to this species may occur with continued use, and some who consume large amounts of this mushroom have reportedly ingested as many as 50 to 200 fresh specimens of various sizes.
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One reason ofttimes given for the relative uniformity of the Russian
people has been the absence of mountain barriers in their homeland the geographical
circumstances have encouraged a cultural and ethnic fluidity. But
this explanation proves too much for precisely the same reason they could
have lost their identity in the vast steppes, exposed forever as they were to
alien peoples on every side, tugging them in every dkection. How Do I Grow Mushrooms Salvia
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Existing evidence indicates that man in the Old World —Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia—has made less use of native plants and shrubs for their hallucinogenic properties than has man in the New World. There is little reason to believe that the vegetation of one half of the globe is poorer or richer in species with hallucinogenic properties than the other half. Why, then, should there be such disparity Has man in the Old World simply not discovered many of the native hallucinogenic plants Are some of them too toxic in other ways to be utilized Or has man in the Old World been culturally less interested in narcotics We have no real answer. But we do know that the Old World has fewer known species employed hallucinogenically than does the New World: compared with only 15 or 20 species used in the Eastern Hemisphere, the species used hallucinogenically in the Western Hemisphere number more than 100! Yet some of the Old World hallucinogens today hold places of primacy throughout the world. Cannabis, undoubtedly the most widespread of all the hallucinogens, is perhaps the best example. The several solanaceous ingredients of medieval witches' brews—henbane, nightshade, belladonna, and mandrake—greatly influenced European philosophy, medicine, and even history for many years. Some played an extraordinarily vital religious role in the early Aryan cultures of northern India. The role of hallucinogens in the cultural and social development of many areas of the Old World is only now being investigated. At every turn, its exte Oyster Mushrooms Wild Mushrooms
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