, this "fool's mushroom" was documented in
Slovakia as well. In addition, the mushroom found
its way into the verses of Polish poet Vaclav
Potocki (1625-1699), who refers to its potential of
"causing foolishness much like opium does ".
Similarly, in England, John Parkinson's
"Theatricum Botanicum" (1640) includes details
about a 'foolish mushroom ".
The Austrian colloquial expression "He
ate those madness-inducing mushrooms" refers to
states of mental confusion.
Historic source materials such as these
are scarce and widely scattered. Undoubtedly, they
refer to psychotropic mushrooms, but lack
sufficient information to permit clear identification
of a specific species. However, considering the
habitats and occurrence of Psilocybe semilanceata
and Psilocybe bohemica, these two species are
among the most likely candidates (see page 16 ff.).
It is remarkable that these historic portrayals
revolve around just one aspect of the mushrooms'
overall effects: the occasional semi-schizophrenic
reaction which can at times be quite dramatic.
None of these accounts reflect a distinct
appreciation of mushrooms in the tradition of the
Mexican Indians ("teonanacatl" = flesh of the
Between Reverence and Fear
By contrast, in Europe we find that the
symptoms of mushroom intoxication have always
been compared to symptoms of mental illness.
Such cross-cultural differences in value judgments
can be explained in terms of two concepts
introduced by R.G. Wasson and his wife:
mycophilia and mycophobia. This distinction subdivides
cultures with different traditional attitudes
towards mushrooms into two groups. For instance,
an entrenched dislike for mushrooms (mycophobia)
in Britain indicates traditional beliefs vastly
different from those found in Slavic countries,
where mushrooms are generally cherished
(mycophilia). The origins and evolution of such
diverging attitudes remain lost in the shadows of
The development of early cultural taboos
and prohibitions against psychotropic mushrooms
may be the root cause of enduring mycophobic
behavior. On the other hand, it is possible that,
thousands of years ago, the process of harvesting
mushrooms as a food source caused alarming
clusters of regionally isolated cases of fatal
mushroom poisonings. Such experiences may well
have seeded a potent and lasting aversion towards
an entire country's mycoflora.
Similarly, the mycophilia typical of
ancient Mexican cultures goes hand in hand with a
general social acceptance of the effects of
Psilocybe mushrooms and their established ritual
usages. Among Mexican Indian tribes, the effects
of psilocybin have never been causally linked to
any type of known mental illness. It is interesting
to note that the Indians of Mexico were the only
Indians in the Americas who also harvested a large
number of mushroom species for food.
Unfortunately, our current socio-political
climate is - strongly biased against newly
discov In the main they were not copying each other, and they probably
had the important facts right.
Claudius was exceedingly fond of mushrooms boleti, and a plausible tradition
has it that his favorite kind was what we know today as the amanita caesarea.
The dish of mushrooms that he ate on the fateful day consisted of poisoned, not
poisonous, mushrooms. On this all three of the ancient historians agree, in different
email@example.com Gov Loc Rs Rs Gov Nl Br It accounts largely for the degree to which we
feel either vitalized or tired. Standing in running water such as an ocean surf, stream or river, and even a
common shower, acts to restore a measure of one�s chi when tired, which is why doing these activities
feels refreshing. The same can be done via the wind and through direct sunlight. Everything we are as
physical bodies, and everything in nature is composed of subatomic particles.
And right here we come upon another of the strange parallels in fungal
imagery that recur between peoples geographically and culturally remote from
one another. We have seen that both the Russians and Catalans speak of certain
lactarii as the rusty ones. Now we observe that the Basques of Guipuzcoa,
Upper Navarre, and the Labourd refer to the dun-colored cep as the white
mushroom, just as the Russians do, the Basque term being ondo zuri. Autojj Sapo Pt
One reason ofttimes given for the relative uniformity of the Russian
people has been the absence of mountain barriers in their homeland the geographical
circumstances have encouraged a cultural and ethnic fluidity. But
this explanation proves too much for precisely the same reason they could
have lost their identity in the vast steppes, exposed forever as they were to
alien peoples on every side, tugging them in every dkection. Adminukrpostua HeadshopBongspd-1884-1019-pm29